© Mario Izquierdo

 Resumen de noticias: New Scientist (La Tierra)

New Scientist - Earth

· When it comes to climate change, a tantrum is just what we need. We can’t wait for the next generation to solve the problem of climate change but today’s kids can still be a big force for change, says Michael E. Mann

· Rock dusting on farms could cool the climate, so let?s try it. Crushed basalt applied to agricultural land could soak up billions of tons of carbon dioxide and boost crops. Let's put it to the test, says Olive Heffernan

· Huge underwater landslides and tsunamis may be caused by ooze. Layers of ooze in the seabed may be responsible for submarine“megaslides” that dwarf ordinary landslides and can cause tsunamis

· Cyclone Gita hits New Zealand after hammering Tonga. New Zealand has declared a state of emergency as Cyclone Gita struck the city of Christchurch, just days after causing devastation on the island nation of Tonga

· Mystery honeycombs in rock may be created by water and salt. Many rocks are covered with circular hollows that look like honeycomb, and now we may finally understand how these strange formations come into existence

· We all need to take our heads out of the sand. The fact we are running out of something so seemingly limitless as sand is a potent symbol of humanity's destructiveness. We must all strive to do better

· Mute male crickets are still trying to serenade females. Male Hawaiian crickets that have lost the ability to chirp still go through the motion of“singing”, even though females can’t hear them

· World without sand: The race to save a precious resource. From electronics to concrete, modern life depends on sand. With supplies running low and mines harming the environment, it’s time to use it smarter

· Shampoo is causing air pollution, but let?s not lose our heads. In Western cities, household products like deodorants and paints are a bigger source of air pollution than vehicle exhausts– so here’s what we need to do

· People are slaughtering orangutans and wiping them out. The population of Bornean orangutans fell by almost half in just 16 years, and it was not a sad by-product of deforestation: many apes were killed deliberately

· How a bat?s hairy tongue lets it suck up nectar like a sponge. If you're a greedy bat, it helps to have a hairy tongue. The hairs will ensure that you can slurp as much nectar as possible from flowers into your mouth

· Expedition to uncover hidden life in mystery Antarctic realm. In July 2017 a huge iceberg broke away from Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf, revealing a marine world that was concealed for thousands of years

· The survivors: Is climate change really killing polar bears?. Rapid global warming is said to be ringing the death knell for polar bears, by melting their icy hunting grounds. But the reality is more complex

· Australia?s deadly 1800s storms help us predict future extremes. Meteorologists cannot currently predict the monster storms that occasionally strike Australia, but decades of newspaper accounts suggest there may be a pattern

· Oldest dog burial suggests prehistoric humans loved dogs as pets. A dog that was buried with its owners 14,000 years ago was chronically ill throughout its life, yet its owners repeatedly nursed it back to health– suggesting a deep bond of friendship

· Deep-sea fish lay eggs near hydrothermal vents to keep them warm. Pacific white skate lay their eggs onto the sizzling hot rocks of hydrothermal vents in the depths of the sea, possibly because the heat speeds up their development

· The worst mass extinction may have begun with mass sterilisation. There seems to have been a surge in ultraviolet radiation during the Permian extinction 252 million years ago, and it might have left plants infertile rather than kill them

· The US agency that guards the environment is going to be hobbled. Scott Pruitt, the head of the Environmental Protection Agency, has talked up his mission to scale back its powers. It's so shortsighted, says Ian Graber-Stiehl

· Beetles escape alive after almost 2 hours in a toad?s stomach. Bombardier beetles sometimes get eaten by toads, but they can squirt hot, toxic jets of liquid from their backsides so the toads often vomit them right back up

· Ancient rock art rewrites the natural history of Arabia. The archaeological record suggests few large animals lived in Arabia in the last few thousand years, but prehistoric rock art from the area depicts a host of big beasts

· It may be impossible to live comfortably without trashing Earth. A study of 151 nations shows that the ones that do the most damage to the planet also give their citizens the best lives. Does this mean modern life is unworkable?

· Tropical plants are blooming as they gorge on our pollution. We are pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, heating the planet, but some plants are using the excess carbon dioxide to make more flowers

· Polar bears waste lots of their energy and it could be a problem. We thought polar bears had neat tricks for conserving energy in lean periods, but it turns out they are not that thrifty, which could cause them trouble in the future

· Wave of massive volcanoes created Earth?s first supercontinent. 2.2 billion years ago, a huge build-up of pressure inside the Earth triggered vast volcanic eruptions, which formed the first ever supercontinent

· Sound waves may be able to trigger earlier tsunami warnings. When an earthquake sets off a tsunami, it releases speedy sound waves that could give us early warning. But they still can’t predict the size of the tsunami 

· People are using mosquito nets for fishing and that?s a bad idea. In many tropical countries mosquito nets are handed out to help stop the spread of malaria, but it seems they are often being repurposed as fishing nets

· Renewables made more electricity than coal in Europe in 2017. The amount of electricity generated by renewables in Europe has for the first time outpaced that coming from coal sources, according to new analysis of official figures

· London has already reached air pollution limits for 2018. It has taken the capital longer to break the air pollution limit this year than last, when legal levels were passed less than a week into January

· Ancient jawbone suggests humans left Africa 50,000 years earlier. We thought that Homo sapiens were confined to Africa until 120,000 years ago, but a jawbone from an Israeli cave reveals an exodus over 170,000 years ago

· These are the worst ready-made sandwiches for the climate. Producing ready-made sandwiches can generate twice as much carbon dioxide as simply making them at home, and one particular filling is egregiously bad

· Chimps are now dying of the common cold and they are all at risk. The deaths of five Ugandan chimpanzees have been traced to a human cold virus, and DNA tests suggest all African chimps are vulnerable

· Our best way to geoengineer the climate may well trash Earth. A key plan to reduce global warming is to grow crops for fuel then capture and bury the carbon released when it's burned. This risks ecocide, says Olive Heffernan

· The origin of insect wings has been revealed by gene editing. Wings have helped insects to dominate the skies for 400 million years, and now CRISPR is revealing exactly how the first wings evolved

· Deadly heat: How to survive the world?s new temperature extremes. Australia’s latest sizzling summer presages a global future – but we’re beginning to understand heat’s impacts on the human body, and how to combat them

· Australia?s A$60 million plan for Great Barrier Reef won?t work. The Australian government has pledged millions of dollars in extra funding to protect the Great Barrier Reef, but none of it will go to tackling the biggest threat

· Huge volcano eruption in the Philippines forces mass evacuation. More than 50,000 villagers were forced to flee their homes after the most active volcano in the Phillipines, Mount Mayon, spewed lava and ash plumes

· Tsunami warning for US west coast after magnitude-7.9 earthquake. A tsunami alert was issued for the US west coast, and then cancelled, after a major earthquake struck at sea off the coast of Alaska

· Spy balloons flying 40km up track drug smugglers on the ground. The US military are testing uncrewed balloons filled with helium that can keep watch over a small area by catching different winds in the stratosphere

· Cute cats the size of kittens are seeing their homes destroyed. Güiñas are the smallest cats in the Americas, smaller than most domestic cats, and they are becoming increasingly rare

· Ruptured Tibetan glaciers triggered massive speedy avalanches. In 2016, a pair of glaciers suddenly collapsed and sent huge chunks of ice hurtling downhill. The events suggest such disasters are more common than we thought

· No, the worst-case climate change futures haven?t been ruled out. A single study has been hailed for narrowing the range of possible climate change scenarios, but figuring out how the world will warm is more complicated than headlines suggest

· Deadly solar flares may have helped seed life on Mars and beyond. High-energy particles that can strip away planetary atmospheres and cause biological damage might also forge the complex organic molecules that give rise to life

· Good news: animals won?t shrink as the climate gets warmer. A 19th-century‘rule’ connecting animal body size and environmental temperature has been challenged, allaying fears that animals may decrease in size as the climate gets warmer

· Commercial electric pulse fishing should be banned for now. The growing use in Europe of trawl nets that stun fish with electricity has divided opinion. It should be scaled back and properly researched, says Lesley Evans Ogden

· A capsized oil tanker is releasing invisible toxins into the sea. The slick of oil condensate from a stricken tanker in the East China Sea is a threat to all marine life, not least because it is invisible

· Spectacular light pillars rise up in frozen North America. The same cold weather that has caused frozen sharks to wash up on the US East Coast has given us a light show more often seen in polar regions

· Tiny individual decisions really could help avert climate chaos. A new computer model has shown individual decisions can massively influence how bad global warming might get. Time to take the human factor seriously, says Adam Corner

· Mount Etna may not really be a?proper? volcano at all. Italy’s famous volcano Mount Etna may be fed mostly by hot water and carbon dioxide, with only a small dose of molten rock to make it resemble a classic volcano

· Even a small cut in global warming will help slow sea level rise. Limiting climate change to 1.5°C instead of 2 °C, even if we overshoot at first and then bring temperatures back down, will ease the rise in sea levels

· UK?s plastic bag ban is a pitiful attempt at a greener future. Talk of cutting plastic pollution has grabbed the headlines, but the UK’s long-awaited 25-year plan for the environment consists almost entirely of vague aspirations and vacuous promises

· If the sea floor is sinking, are we safe from sea level rise?. The first study to calculate how much the ocean floor is sinking due to the extra weight of meltwater going into the sea has been widely misrepresented

· Storm waves can move boulders heavier than the Statue of Liberty. Extreme storm waves at sea have shifted a boulder weighing 620 tonnes, explaining why huge rocks are sometimes mysteriously found on high cliffs

· Ban on plastic microbeads comes into force in the UK. A UK-wide ban on the manufacture of products containing tiny pieces of plastic has come into force - but the ban on selling such products won't come in until July

· Extreme weather in US and Australia may be due to climate change. The eastern US has shivered through freezing temperatures while Australia has sweltered in a colossal heatwave, and both events may be linked to climate change

· Otherworldly?earth pyramids? make the Alps look alien. You don't need a space ship to see alien landscapes up close. Just take a hike to these Piramidi di terra in the South Tyrol of northern Italy

· Tackle UK?s killer toxic air before waging war on ocean plastic. If only environment secretary Michael Gove's enthusiasm to curb plastic pollution extended to more pressing environmental issues, says Olive Heffernan

· Baby skeleton from Alaska reveals origins of Native Americans. DNA from an infant girl who died 11,500 years ago reveals where America’s first human settlers came from and when they arrived

· ?Thrill-seeking? genes could help birds escape climate change. Some birds may escape extinction if their genes favour exploring newer, more hospitable habitats

· Iconic tree from Twin Peaks threatened by climate change. The Douglas fir is one of the most ecologically and economically vital species in the Pacific Northwest, but global warming may pose a serious threat to it

· Bright skies at night: The riddle of the nocturnal sun. Before artificial lights blinded our sight, reports of nights as bright as day were common. What lay behind the phenomenon was a mystery– until now

· England?s soggy place names could predict the climate future. Anglo-Saxon England was unusually warm and stormy. Place names coined then could hold clues to how the weather will get wetter and wilder as the climate changes

· Genital parasite crabs are struggling to find sex partners. Parasitic crustaceans called castrator pea crabs spend most of their lives hiding in the sex organs of limpets, and that makes it difficult to find a mate

· Cocktail umbrellas can save Earth from the Anthropocene. On the fourth day of Christmas, we explore the links between artist Mark Dion, Aristotle and how multiple perspectives are needed to solve our problems

· Plants use sand armour to break teeth of attacking caterpillars. Some plants are coated in sand, and it seems the sand grains act like medieval armour that protects these“psammophorous” plants from munching caterpillars

· Our lust for tastier chocolate has transformed the cocoa tree. Ever since we domesticated the cocoa tree over 3000 years ago, we have been breeding them to make tastier chocolate– but in the process we have made them vulnerable

· ?Sno substitute: The ecological cost of fake flakes on the piste. As temperatures rise, resorts are turning to artificial snow to make the champagne powder ski nuts desire. But that could be making climate change worse

· China tackles climate change with world?s largest carbon market. The Chinese state hopes to use market forces to encourage energy-hungry firms to seek cleaner alternatives, but simply telling them what to do may be more effective

· Hardy Antarctic tardigrades may be threatened by climate change. Tardigrades can famously survive almost anything, including being sent into space, but the Antarctic species could face problems as a result of climate change

· Good news: Demand for coal is plummeting towards a record low. The global demand for coal has fallen 4.2 per cent over the last two years, one of the biggest drops on record

· The sparkling ice hummocks of the world?s biggest lake. Temperature and pressure differences in the water of Russia’s Lake Baikal cause cracks to form, and great transparent slabs of ice rise off the surface

· Great tits avoid bad food after seeing grossed-out friends. If a great tit eats something nasty, it will disgustedly wipe its beak on a branch– and other great tits watch and learn

· Young female monkeys use deer as?outlet for sexual frustration?. Adolescent female Japanese macaques mount deer and rub on their backs, perhaps as a way to practise sexual behaviour before they are old enough to mate

· Venice may be almost 200 years older than anyone thought. Two peach stones found in sediment beneath Saint Mark’s Basilica could extend the history of Venice by 180 years

· Why 2018 is gearing up to be a tipping point for climate action. What will next year hold for global temperatures, carbon dioxide levels, the electric car revolution and Trump's coal dream, wonders Owen Gaffney

· California?s wildfires are driven by climate and human error. Six separate wildfires are raging in California. They are driven both by hotter, drier climate and by human activities such as planting“alien” trees

· ?Scary? spider photos on Facebook are revealing new species. When people see a big spider they often post a photo on Facebook– and those images have now revealed up to 30 new species

· Ancient microbes caused Earth?s first ever global warming. Over 3 billion years ago, the sun was faint so our planet should have been a snowball. But it wasn’t – and microorganisms may have been what kept it warm

· Waterworlds: How should we protect our most precious resource?. As new politics of protecting natural resources emerges, what does that mean for water? And who writes the rules? Three new books explore

· Faltering carbon capture needs more investment not doubt. The world's first full-scale power plant carbon capture project has stumbled, but we can't let that risk the future of a technology we need, says Olive Heffernan

· Will wildfires finally change Rupert Murdoch?s climate stance?. The media-mogul's Santa Monica vineyard was saved from wildfire destruction, but the world may yet burn thanks to his climate views, says Richard Schiffman

· Africa?s giraffes are being slaughtered by Joseph Kony?s army. Elephants, giraffes, giant elands and chimpanzees are being decimated by poachers linked to violent militias in a lawless region of central Africa

· Earth?s climate will warm 15 per cent more than we thought. Climate models have always offered a range of possible temperature rises, but it turns out the ones that best fit what’s happened so far all predict even greater warming

· Japan?s refusal to stop ivory trade undermines bans elsewhere. Even though other countries are clamping down on illegal ivory, the unconstrained trade in Japan may offer loopholes for criminals to keep selling ivory– fuelling elephant poaching

· Sumatran tigers fall 17 per cent and have just two strongholds. There are now only two viable populations of Sumatran tigers left in the wild, so if the cats are to be saved those areas have to be protected

· Scorching hot springs house extreme life and a future ocean. Three tectonic plates are gradually pulling apart at the Danakil depression in Ethiopia, creating a hot, acid environment that could provide clues to life on Mars

· Tasty tomatoes could be sacrificed in drive to cut food waste. People are up in arms over new UK food labelling guidelines that advise storing tomatoes in the fridge. Does flavour have to lose out to reduce spoilage?

· The fashion industry can only go green by becoming unfashionable. Fashion is facing up to how wasteful it is, but its impact on the environment goes far beyond fast fashion and ever-changing trends

· ?Super-spreader? coral could restore trashed Great Barrier Reef. Most of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef may well be destroyed in the next few decades, but hubs of resilient coral could make larvae to restore it all

· Hey, Flat Earther, no need to launch a rocket to test your ideas. Memo to Mike Hughes - there are plenty of ways to check if Earth is flat or not without building your own rocket, says Ian Whittaker

· Madagascar?s lemurs close to extinction after population crash. Ring-tailed lemurs have experienced a precipitous decline over the last two decades and are now one of the 25 most endangered primates in the world

· What to expect if Indonesia?s volcano erupts in a big way. Mount Agung's last big eruption was in 1963, and a major blast could create an ash cloud that disrupts air travel for weeks, and temporarily cool the global climate as well

· Dan McKenzie: The man who made Earth move. 50 years ago, the theory of plate tectonics was radical counterculture– until some chance happenings in the Summer of Love sent it mainstream

· Russia confirms?extremely high? radiation levels in toxic cloud. Earlier this month, France's nuclear safety agency said it had recorded radioactivity in the area near the Ural Mountains - and Russia has now verified the readings

· Light pollution is set to double between now and 2050. The first global“light census” shows that the area affected by artificial lighting is growing by 2.2 per cent every year, posing risks to wildlife and human health

· Keystone XL oil pipeline will go ahead despite last week?s spill. Last week the Keystone pipeline spilled 5,000 barrels of oil. This week Nebraska decided to allow the Keystone XL extension to be built right through the state

· Latest climate talks actually made progress despite US obstinacy. While the US tried to promote“clean coal” at the COP23 Bonn climate meeting, other countries called for the dirty fossil fuel to be rapidly phased out

· The exquisite marble that sculptor Michelangelo couldn?t use. Workers at the Cervaiole quarry have supplied marble to Auguste Rodin and Henry Moore. But the beautiful rock was discovered 500 years ago by Michelangelo

· How a tiny fly can?scuba dive? in a salty and toxic lake. Alkali flies plunge into the salty and alkaline Mono Lake, to feed and lay their eggs, but until now it has been unclear how they manage to survive

· Spongy clay might create huge water deposits deep inside Earth. We might finally know how ocean-sized deposits of water hundreds of kilometres below Earth's surface are getting there: a spongy sort of clay that is bringing it underground

· Why setting?safe? limits for environmental damage won?t work. The boundaries set for human impacts on the planet are deeply flawed and only encourage us to keep pushing towards them, warns Stuart Pimm

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