© Mario Izquierdo

 Resumen de noticias: New Scientist (La Tierra)

New Scientist - Earth

· Shock mass coral die-off in Asia sounds alarm for world?s reefs. An unexpected coral bleaching event in the South China Sea shows that reefs can heat up substantially more than the surrounding ocean

· 7 foods you should avoid to help feed the world. We can all play a part by rethinking what we eat so that Earth’s limited resources are used more efficiently. So, which foods and drinks should we cut back on?

· Quarter of California?s snowpack loss is from human-made warming. California’s reservoirs depend on the gradual melting of winter snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, but the snowpack is dwindling and may not return

· Tomorrow?s menu: Termites, grass and synthetic milk. The population is set to rise by 2.5 billion in three decades. We have plenty of ingenious ideas about how to keep us all fed, but will they be too tough to swallow?

· Weather and climate extremes continue to set new records. Last year was bad, but 2017 is shaping to follow suit as carbon levels, temperatures and sea levels continue to rise, says the World Meteorological Organisation

· On front line of climate change as Maldives fights rising seas. The Maldives government has decided not to abandon the sinking country and instead vowed to build new islands to keep the country– and economy – afloat

· CO2 emissions from energy remain flat for third year running. Carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector have not increased for three years in a row even as the global economy grew

· Indian Ocean version of El Nio behind drought in East Africa. Like El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole involves cyclical temperature changes in the ocean, and now millions face crop failures and famine partly as a result

· Metabolism may be older than life itself and start spontaneously. The discovery that the Krebs cycle, which is essential for life, can occur in the absence of enzymes suggests that life’s origins were surprisingly humble

· Scott Pruitt?s climate denial may be Putin?s real prize. Did Russia back the rise of Donald Trump to see climate sceptics in power in the hope of saving its economic skin, wonders Owen Gaffney

· Forget snow, rain will become main precipitation in the Arctic. By the end of the century, the Arctic will get far more rain. The vicious cycle of warming and precipitation could have serious consequences for wildlife

· Trump?s assault on climate science will not make America great. Gutting the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency will leave the US more vulnerable to climate change

· Green thinking in the era of Trump. In a new political reality, the rights of the individual will overshadow how the US manages its environmental resources. Two new books explain the background

· EPA boss says carbon dioxide not primary cause of climate change. The statement from Scott Pruitt, the new head of the Environmental Protection Agency, contradicts all the scientific evidence

· Plankton can save the ocean. But who will save the plankton?. It's not just warming oceans we need to worry about. Crucial plankton have been discovered behaving strangely, but they may point the way to better geoengineering

· Most people don?t know climate change is entirely human-made. Even in eco-friendly Norway, only a minority of people realise that global warming is entirely due to our actions, survey of four European countries reveals

· Sponge can soak up and release spilled oil hundreds of times. A new foam material could be the first good reusable method to recover spilled oil, and would be much better for the environment

· Raindrops make soil bacteria take off and fly through air. When raindrops hit the ground, they throw microbes into the air in aerosols– with possible implications for the climate, agriculture and diseases

· Deep cuts to environmental research in Trump?s budget proposal. US agencies doing climate research see concerning budget proposal that would eliminate funding for government science on air, energy and water within EPA, and slash satellite and coastal research at NOAA

· Global greening may soak up less carbon dioxide than projected. Earth could warm slightly faster than we thought because a lack of phosphorus will prevent many plants exploiting all the extra CO2

· UK?s CO2 emissions lowest since 19th century as coal use falls. Emissions of the major greenhouse gas fell almost 6 per cent year-on-year in 2016 to the lowest levels seen since 1894

· First yearly CO2 forecast predicts one of biggest rises ever. The forecast suggests levels of the greenhouse gas could briefly pass 410 parts per million in May, just four years after first passing 400 ppm

· Rock solid evidence of Anthropocene seen in 208 minerals we made. Human activities like mining and building have created hundreds of minerals and spread them all over the world, leaving a significant mark on the geological record

· Traces in rock may be the oldest evidence of life on Earth ever. Rocks that could be just 200 million years younger than Earth carry structures and signatures reminiscent of microbial activity, but some dispute that view

· Atmospheric rivers leave California dried out and then flooded. Weeks of storms have filled California’s reservoirs. A series of atmospheric river storms is to blame, and the state’s ageing dams are feeling the strain

· Snow will melt more slowly in a warmer world? here?s why. Snowmelt will start earlier but happen more slowly, depriving river systems and reservoirs of the big gush of water they rely on

· A loaf of bread emits half a kilo of CO2, mainly from fertiliser. Fertiliser use accounts for 40 per cent of greenhouse gases emitted to make bread, and bread production accounts for half a per cent of all UK emissions

· There?s no such thing as?clean coal?? it?s dirty and expensive. Australia and the US want to revive an uneconomical and polluting technology, and, worse, Australia plans to take money from a clean energy fund to do it

· The EU?s renewable energy policy is making global warming worse. Independent report concludes the massive subsidies for wood energy are increasing greenhouse emissions, and are a waste of public money

· Worst-ever coral bleaching event continues into fourth year. NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch is predicting that many reefs will bleach in the next three months as sea temperatures remain high despite the recent El Niño coming to an end

· Alarm as climate sceptic named head of US environment agency. Scientists within the EPA say work continues as usual for now, but they worry about potential changes when Scott Pruitt– a climate change sceptic – takes charge

· The father of the Gaia hypothesis shares his greatest invention. James Lovelock is best known for his Gaia hypothesis, but it is a device he invented 60 years ago that accidentally helped to save the planet that we should laud him for

· How the world made us: chance and climate in the human story. Chance, geo-climatic factors and the changing landscape all have an important part to play in human evolution, argues Mark Maslin in The Cradle of Humanity

· Antarctic sea ice is very low? but don?t jump to conclusions. Drawing premature conclusions about global warming’s role in Antarctic sea ice loss is unjustified whether positive or negative. The evidence must speak for itself

· Emergency clause lets European countries beat bee pesticide ban. About half of the European Union’s member states are making use of an emergency clause to allow the use of banned pesticides that are thought to harm bees

· Crews race to fix California dam before more rain falls. Heavy rains caused erosion and a partial collapse of spillways at a California dam - and more rain is forecast, threatening to overflow it again and flood towns

· More people now believe human-made climate change is happening. The proportion of people in the UK who accept climate change is happening and is largely human-made has risen from 57 per cent three years ago to 64 per cent now

· Simple equation shows how human activity is trashing the planet. The impact of industrialised societies on Earth has been described in a mathematical formula that should scare us all, says Owen Gaffney

· Climate change is already battering hundreds of animal species. Almost half of all threatened land mammals and a quarter of threatened birds may be feeling the pinch as a result of habitat loss and other changes

· Australia?s extreme heatwave is a preview of things to come. The current record-breaking heat, sparking bush fires and putting people in hospital, could be a foretaste of the new normal as climate change proceeds

· New talk of warming pause just another faux climate controversy. The latest attempt to resurrect climate change deniers' favourite trope of a warming pause is just more smoke and mirrors, say Michael Mann and Susan Hassol 

· Secrets of Earth?s birth carried in lava jets from planet?s core. Time capsules from around the time of Earth’s birth 4.5 billion years ago are preserved in the hottest mantle plumes despite planet’s plate tectonic activity

· Great lettuce crisis is a taste of climate crop chaos to come. The UK's lettuce shortage is a stark warning of how even the world's wealthy will find their food supply disrupted by climate change, warns Olive Heffernan

· Everest is not the world?s tallest mountain? and here?s why. Efforts to give one single standard of height could help us understand sea level rise, remeasure mountains– and rewrite the textbooks in other ways, too

· US conservative bill aims to axe EPA? here?s why it won?t work. The bill is latest in a series of signals that the US Environmental Protection Agency will be reined in under President Trump, but it might not end it just yet

· Ocean acidification may be good for thriving marine snails. Although acidifying oceans are expected to be bad news for marine life overall, tiny snails prove that there will be winners as well as losers

· The video installation that makes us swim in our own mess. A work by Ethan Turpin, on display at The Animal Museum's Entangled exhibition in Los Angeles, forces us to confront the way we have polluted the ocean

· Volcanoes: Oxford exhibition gives the fiery inside story. An engaging exhibition and its accompanying book proves that exploring our relationship with Earth's most dynamic geology doesn't need to be sensationalist

· Long-lost continent found submerged deep under Indian Ocean. The continent of "Mauritia" sunk as it was stretched out like plasticine by the plate tectonics that drew India and Madagascar apart some 85 million years ago

· Planet Earth makes its own water from scratch deep in the mantle. Computer simulation confirms that water can form within our planet rather than arriving from space, and the process may explain mysterious deep quakes

· Wood-burners: London air pollution is just tip of the iceberg. Sold as an eco-friendly way to heat our homes, wood-burning stoves might actually be a disaster for their owners’ health and for the climate

· US scientists can look to Canada for ways to fight a crackdown. The Trump administration seems to want to rein scientists in, just as Canada did until recently– and it's there we should look for lessons in fighting back

· Earth?s water must have arrived here earlier than we thought. Our best theory said meteorites brought water to Earth 4.5 billion years ago, now it seems they struck far earlier, while our planet’s core was still forming

· Earth?s water must have arrived here earlier than we thought. Our best theory said meteorites brought water to Earth 4.5 billion years ago, now it seems they struck far earlier, while our planet’s core was still forming

· Trump ditched Obama?s climate and water policies on first day. White House signals intention to cancel Obama’s Climate Action Plan and expand oil and gas exploration

· Big cities warm up during the week as commuters flock in. People warm up large cities such as Melbourne and Sydney by an average of 0.3°C each week, and temperatures drop over the weekends

· Climate scientists brace themselves for a Trump-led witch-hunt. Trump can now target scientists he doesn't like using archaic laws. Here's how they can fight back

· Complex life may have had a false start 2.3 billion years ago. High levels of oceanic oxygen could have allowed advanced, animal-like life to develop for the first time – only to be wiped out again as oxygen vanished

· Global sea ice is at lowest level ever recorded. The area of ocean covered by floating ice is at its lowest since the satellite era began, and probably the lowest it has been for thousands of years

· Mysterious fairy circles in Namibian desert explained at last. Patterns in desert vegetation have been puzzling ecologists for years, but now it seems to have been finally cracked: both water and termites are at play

· 2016 confirmed as the hottest year on record. The global average temperature in 2016 was 1.1°C higher than pre-industrial levels and about 0.07°C higher than the previous record set in 2015

· Of presidents and planets: Neil deGrasse Tyson looks ahead. Donald Trump’s election has alarmed many scientists. Neil deGrasse Tyson takes a cosmic perspective, reflects on Obama’s legacy and considers the road to Mars

· Down with data! Sagas are more likely to save Earth. Forget cold environmental facts. A new book, The Myth Gap, argues that stirring tales of redemption, atonement and renewal should spur us to action

· Carbon seen bonding with six other atoms for the first time. A pyramid-shaped carbon molecule breaks one of the most basic lessons of chemistry textbooks– bonding with six other atoms instead of the typical four

· The paradox powering Earth?s magnetic field. Our planet’s protective force field appears to be billions of years older than the mechanism that got it going. So what really made Earth magnetic?

· Press regulators need to act when scientific facts are denied. Journalists do not deserve the backing of press regulators when they deny facts such as those on anthropogenic climate change, says Phillip Williamson

· UK urged to push ahead with world-first tidal lagoon power plant. An independent review commissioned by the UK government is expected to back the mega-scheme to harness energy from tides

· US Congress just made it easier to ditch science for politics. Two new bills could undermine safety and other regulations by giving politicians license to ignore evidence that runs counter to their ideas

· Largest lake in southern Europe under threat from?eco-resort?. One of the most biodiverse lakes in Europe, home to many species found nowhere else, is under threat from the development of a resort and hydropower dams

· Molten iron river discovered speeding beneath Russia and Canada. A hot stream of molten iron that is 420 kilometres wide is moving westwards under North America and Siberia and has inexplicably tripled its speed over the past 15 years

· Deepest water found 1000km down, a third of way to Earth?s core. Water identified far below the surface suggests Earth may contain many oceans’-worth of hidden water throughout the mantle

· Baby turtles leave behind fleeting oases on beach dune deserts. Organic nutrients from turtle eggs form a seasonal feast for tiny life forms living in the deserts of tropical sandy dunes

· Window to hell: Io?s strongest volcano changes face as we watch. The moon of Jupiter is in an almost constant state of eruption - and its most persistent volcano, Loki Patera, keeps an unsteady rhythm

· Here?s how experts can rebuild trust in the post-truth era. Scientists and others will need to embrace a new set of tactics if they hope to be heard above the charlatans who dominated in 2016, says Adam Corner

· How you can make the greenest life choices. Say goodbye to greenwash. Here's what you need to know about the hidden energy that makes the best environmentally friendly choices less obvious than they seem

· Scientists won?t stop discovering stuff, no matter what. 2016 often felt like a jaw-dropping year where the unexpected and impossible kept on happening. Welcome to our world, say scientists

· Future air conditioning could work by beaming heat into space. Physicists have achieved record temperature reductions of more than 40°C using radiative cooling, which beams heat through the atmosphere

· People prepare to fight their governments on climate change. Despite record-breaking climate change, some leaders may be reluctant to cut emissions. The Paris Agreement may give people the clout needed to force them to act

· Mystery Antarctic circle means ice is melting from surface down. A 2-kilometre-wide circle spotted during on an Antarctic ice shelf was thought to be caused by a meteorite. It now looks like winds and melt are to blame

· Large asteroid impacts may be rare, but we should be prepared. It would be wise to heed calls to build a dedicated rocket primed to defend Earth against a large incoming asteroid or comet, says Geraint Lewis

· Animal magnetism: Why dogs do their business pointing north. Dogs align north-south when defecating, foxes pounce north-east, and that’s just the start. Where does this magnetic sense come from – and do we have it too?

· Third-ever natural quasicrystal found in Siberian meteorite. A tiny grain of metallic rock from a meteorite found in north-eastern Russia contains a form of matter called a quasicrystal– the third one ever found in nature

· Global sea ice has reached a record low? should we be worried?. A graph showing global sea ice levels hitting unprecedented lows for this time of year has caused a social media storm. Here’s what you need to know

· Half surface water in some countries has been lost since 1980s. Overall more land is covered by water now than three decades ago– but there have been huge losses in Central Asia and the Middle East

· Europe?s green energy policy is a disaster for the environment. The EU's massive renewable energy drive is backfiring and its proposed solutions are just greenwashing, say campaigners

· North Dakota oil pipeline may still be built despite army block. Indigenous people and environmentalists have won the latest battle in a long stand-off with companies over an oil pipeline going under a lake and through sacred sites

· Stop buying organic food if you really want to save the planet. With global emissions from farming rising fast, we have to find a way for us consumers to make informed, rational choices about the food we eat

· World?s highest plants discovered growing 6km above sea level. Coin-sized pioneers are the highest vascular plants ever found, living at more than 6100 metres above sea level on India’s dizzying Himalayan peaks

· World?s first city to power its water needs with sewage energy. The city of Aarhus will supply fresh water using only energy created from its household wastewater and sewage - but will others be able to do the same?

· India?s grand plan to create world?s longest river set to go. A highly ambitious and controversial project to link up the nation's rivers in a single inter-connected system is ready to start, even as environmental concerns are mounting

· Finland set to become first country to ban coal use for energy. Tomorrow, the nation is expected to announce a move to phase out coal and switch to renewable energy, becoming the first to outlaw the fossil fuel

· Build green highways for bees to help save vital pollinators. Habitat loss, farming and climate change are behind the loss of wild pollinators, which are crucial to three quarters of the world's crops

· Moon-dust cake mix shows moon may have had water from the start. Early moon geology recreated in the lab suggests water was there to begin with, not added later by comets

· Time to stage trials of engineering the atmosphere to cool Earth. Tests of controversial geoengineering methods, especially poorly researched options such as radiation management, must begin in earnest, says Matthew Watson

· Dinosaur-killing asteroid turned planet Earth inside-out. Pulling samples from the Chicxulub crater shows that the impact caused rocks to move like liquid and form pores in which life could flourish

· The world in 2076: That nuclear war was a bit of a bummer. Even if Russia and the US keep their fingers off the nuclear button, a small-scale nuclear conflict is well capable of trashing the planet

· First ever lightning-mapping satellite set for take off. The US's latest weather satellite, due to launch 19 November, will be the first to watch lightning continuously, as well as monitor the sun and space weather

· The world in 2076: We fixed the climate but still face turmoil. Epic geoengineering megaprojects have saved us from warming, but now we can't stop or we'll unleash a catastrophe

· Bleached corals in the Pacific have started bouncing back. Small signs of recovery and arrival of new baby coral and fish have left scientists somewhat upbeat about prospects of coral recovery following major bleaching last year

· 80,000 reindeer have starved to death as Arctic sea ice retreats. Knock-on effects of weather have frozen snow in recent years, causing tens of thousands of reindeer to starve– and stoking fears of more famine to come this year


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