© Mario Izquierdo

 Resumen de noticias: New Scientist (La Tierra)

New Scientist - Earth

· Rising seas could double the number of severe coastal floods. An increase in sea level of between just 5 and 10 centimetres could make devastating weather events come every 25 years rather than every 50 years

· Narwhals could help us measure melting glaciers underwater. A project off Greenland will tag whales with sensors to measure sea temperatures and ice melt in hard-to-reach places, improving predictions of sea-level rise

· Remote Pacific island found buried under tonnes of plastic waste. A tiny, otherwise pristine island is smothered by our blast from the past: vast amounts of decades-old plastic from around the world

· Unshackled, big auto will keep choking the world on diesel fumes. We now know diesel vehicles pollute more than they should to deadly effect everywhere, but the real scandal is government foot-dragging, says Olive Heffernan

· The day Mount St Helens erupted and I should have died. But for a chance decision, Don Swanson would have been killed in the Mount St Helens eruption of 1980. That day changed his life, and volcanology, forever

· Driest ten months in 100 years recorded in southern England. The last 10 months were the driest July to April for southern England in records stretching back more than 100 years, figures reveal 

· Where the wind blows: Mapping our wildest gusts. A new wind atlas will help turbines avoid the doldrums– and solve some of wind's enduring mysteries

· Hundreds of newly-discovered plants may yield new crops or drugs. Even as we discover promising new wild relatives of key crops and medicinal plants, some of them are already endangered by pests and climate change 

· Beaver dams keeps streams cool and protect sensitive fish. We used to think that beaver dams warmed up stream waters as felling trees to build them reduces shade. Now it seems the opposite might be true

· Odds on: Five scientific theories decided by wager. From the existence of black holes to the reality of climate change, over the years some big questions have been the subject of bets,  finds Michael Brooks

· Diesel fumes lead to thousands more deaths than thought. Cars, lorries and buses that drive on diesel churn out far more air pollution than standard testing procedures suggest, even without any emissions cheating devices

· Early Earth was covered in a global ocean and had no mountains. Some 4.4 billion years ago, soon after its formation, Earth was a much quieter and duller place than it is today, according to analysis of minerals from that time

· We are on track to pass 1.5C warming in less than 10 years. Business as usual would cause the planet to warm above the aspirational 1.5°C limit agreed at the UN Paris meeting as early as 2026

· Increased cancer rate in US linked to bad environment. Around 39 in 100,000 cancer deaths could be avoided if US counties improved environment quality– a target that could be hampered by Trump's new legislation

· Snowball Earth melting led to freshwater ocean 2 kilometres deep. A freshwater layer up to 2 kilometres deep floated on our planet’s oceans for some 50,000 years after the end of an extreme ice age

· Industry experts may replace dismissed EPA advisory scientists. The Trump administration has dismissed several scientists from the advisory board of the US Environmental Protection Agency and may replace them with people from industry

· Pink mountains light up in otherworldly view of fjord. These peaks are part of the Tracy Arm, a 43-kilometre-long fjord near Juneau, Alaska, and photographed with an infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light camera

· Cutting through the smog: What to do to fight air pollution. Tackling our air problems starts with traffic control, but individual action to reduce energy use and intensive farming would also help clean our air

· UK government subsidises coal sector with356 million a year. Despite pledges to phase out coal, UK and several other EU countries still provide various tax benefits to the coal sector, according to a new report

· The UK government?s attitude to air pollution stinks. Despite debate over how many "deaths" air pollution causes, it is clear bad air damages our health, so attempts to delay rules on reducing it must be resisted

· UK?s plan to clean up its air is still inadequate, critics say. The government has published long-awaited plans to cut illegal pollution but critics have warned they are too weak to improve the UK's dirty air 

· Cutting through the smog: How air pollution shortens your life. Don’t take alarming death toll numbers at face value – the noxious gases in the air won’t kill you outright, but they will cut your time on Earth

· Cutting through the smog: 5 ways to slash your pollution intake. From cycling rather than driving to being savvy about where you walk, here are the key things that will minimise the risk pollution poses to you

· Strange mantle plume under Iceland helps keep Scotland afloat. Most plumes of hot rock have a circular outline, but the plume beneath Iceland has a splatter of horizontal fingers hundreds of kilometres long below Earth’s crust

· Cutting through the smog: Is pollution getting worse?. The quality of air varies from country to country and in some places pea-soupers are becoming more frequent, in others, the air is getting ever cleaner

· Arctic oil and gas must remain off limits for good, Trump. The US president's executive order seeking to overturn a ban on fossil fuel exploration in Arctic waters is unsafe and irresponsible, says Owen Gaffney

· Map of the underworld may let us play plate tectonics in reverse. An atlas of the ancient continents swallowed up long ago is the first to show the whereabouts of almost 100 tectonic plates that have sunk

· Seabed seismic sensors would have cut 2011 Japan tsunami toll. An earthquake warning system now being installed at the source of the Tohoku quake would have alerted people much faster if it had existed in 2011

· Plan to regrow receding Swiss glacier by blowing artificial snow. An ambitious plan to save a melting glacier in the Swiss Alps with showers of artificial snow will be tested this summer

· Ancient carvings show comet hit Earth and triggered mini ice age. Headless human and animal symbols carved into stone in Turkey tell the story of a devastating comet impact that triggered a mini ice age more than 13,000 years ago

· UK loses another court case over failure to tackle air pollution. Government must unveil revised plans on 9 May and cannot wait until after the general election as it wanted to

· Seabed images show the scars icebergs carve into polar sea floor. A new atlas shows scars gouged into polar sea floors by glaciers and icebergs in unprecedented detail, which could help our understanding of how they behave

· Amazon rainforest under threat as Brazil tears up protections. The political turmoil and fast-tracking of big development projects is putting deforestation gains under threat

· Typhoon Haiyan?s electric spectacular in the eye of the storm. Satellites reveal that one of the strongest tropical storms on record had unusual lightning in its core– which could be used to monitor storm intensity

· Marine life is rubbish? at least in these pictures. Mandy Barker produces lush, evocative images of the very material that's destroying the marine environment

· UK does more to protect marine areas overseas than at home. The government is failing to designate marine protected areas off its coast as promised, says a parliamentary report

· Plastic-munching caterpillars may show us how to dissolve waste. A chance discovery that honeycomb moth caterpillars can digest plastic means they could hold an enzyme that will break down some of our most persistent waste

· On the ground in Washington at the March for Science. Thousands rallied and marched in the rain in the US capital to stand up for science and its place in politics

· Environment chief says US should exit Paris climate agreement. The US appears to be getting closer to quitting the Paris climate agreement, with Scott Pruitt, the head of the EPA, saying it’s a bad deal for the country

· Rocks of ages: How meteorites reveal the solar system?s history. Clever ways to find more space debris, and pinpoint where it came from, will help us rewrite what we know about the solar system's turbulent youth

· Fleet of CubeSats launches to study the neglected?ignorosphere?. Today 28 boxy satellites blasted off for the International Space Station, on a mission to study a stubbornly inaccessible region of Earth's atmosphere

· Internal migration of millions as seas rise will rattle whole US. It's not just coastal areas that will be affected by rising waters, and the US might be hopelessly underprepared unless planning starts now, says Jeff Goodell

· California?s wet year eases drought but many still lack water. Don’t be fooled by the superbloom. Despite record-breaking rains, California’s drought is still ongoing in four counties, and the driest five years on record will have lasting effects

· Lightning round-up: The world?s weirdest electricity. From flashes of light resembling sea monsters to vast rings of glowing red light, lightning comes in an astonishing array of mysterious flavours

· Bolt from the blue: Lightning doesn?t form like we thought. It happens somewhere on Earth 100 times a second, yet we don't know how or why. Peering into the hearts of thunderstorms is starting to illuminate lightning's mysteries

· It?s not too late to save Great Barrier Reef from politicians. Australia is pushing ahead with plans for a giant coal mine, despite the threat it poses to the imperilled reef and hints that the appetite for coal is waning

· Life could exist up to 10 kilometres beneath the sea floor. Samples from a mud volcano contain biological signatures that suggest microbes lived in the material when it was rock several kilometres beneath the ocean floor

· Public fatigue is the friend of those who would thwart science. Climate change deniers exploit disillusion brought on by often gloomy scientific findings, but evolving views on antibiotic use show it needn't be that way

· Mass bleaching hits Great Barrier Reef for second year in a row. The reef’s central portion is bleaching fast this year, following huge losses in the northern part last year – and climate change is the culprit

· A year on thin ice: Four seasons in a radically changed Arctic. The ice that was once rock-solid is now rotten and see-through in places, weakened by a winter of freak heatwaves. Discover the new normal at the North Pole

· Record amounts of renewable energy added to the mix in 2016. Renewable energy sources added 138.5 gigawatts to global power capacity, equivalent to the total installed capacity of Canada

· Flight turbulence to get three times more common because of CO2. Air travel is likely to get a lot bumpier as carbon dioxide levels rise and affect the jet streams

· Neglect and drug trade led to Colombian landslide disaster. People who snort coke may have contributed to the landslide that devastated the town of Mocoa in Colombia, killing hundreds

· CO2 set to hit levels not seen in 50 million years by 2050. We are pumping CO2 into the atmosphere so fast that by the middle of this century the gas could soar to its highest levels for 50 million years

· US bill restricts use of science in environmental policymaking. The so-called HONEST Act promises to end secrecy in science, but will in effect cripple the EPA’s ability to develop public health regulations, say concerned scientists

· Warming drives Alaskan glacier to its lowest point in 900 years. The Columbia glacier was tipped into rapid retreat by human-caused climate warming of less than 2°C, so many more glaciers might be doomed

· How to snatch carbon emissions victory from US climate U-turn. Donald Trump's rollback on climate gives the rest of the world a second chance to do the unthinkable: put a price on carbon. Will we seize the opportunity?

· It just got harder to deny climate change drives extreme weather. The link between human activity and unusual jet stream patterns associated with extreme weather events is getting stronger, says Olive Heffernan

· Western demand for goods from China is killing 100,000 a year. Nearly a quarter of premature deaths from air pollution worldwide happen in countries that manufacture goods for export

· Trump signs executive order to reverse Obama?s climate policies. The order targets the 2015 Clean Power Plan, which was meant to limit emissions from coal-fired power plants, and aims to relax fracking regulations

· Geoengineering the sky is scary but we need to test it now. The world's biggest trial of cooling the planet by altering the atmosphere is being launched. It is crucial that it goes ahead, says Jamais Cascio

· Changing clocks twice a year is bad for health and energy use. Are you feeling tired today? Much of the UK got up an hour earlier this morning, a change that has been linked to heart attacks and strokes in some countries

· Shock mass coral die-off in Asia sounds alarm for world?s reefs. An unexpected coral bleaching event in the South China Sea shows that reefs can heat up substantially more than the surrounding ocean

· 7 foods you should avoid to help feed the world. We can all play a part by rethinking what we eat so that Earth’s limited resources are used more efficiently. So, which foods and drinks should we cut back on?

· Quarter of California?s snowpack loss is from human-made warming. California’s reservoirs depend on the gradual melting of winter snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, but the snowpack is dwindling and may not return

· Tomorrow?s menu: Termites, grass and synthetic milk. The population is set to rise by 2.5 billion in three decades. We have plenty of ingenious ideas about how to keep us all fed, but will they be too tough to swallow?

· Weather and climate extremes continue to set new records. Last year was bad, but 2017 is shaping to follow suit as carbon levels, temperatures and sea levels continue to rise, says the World Meteorological Organisation

· On front line of climate change as Maldives fights rising seas. The Maldives government has decided not to abandon the sinking country and instead vowed to build new islands to keep the country– and economy – afloat

· CO2 emissions from energy remain flat for third year running. Carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector have not increased for three years in a row even as the global economy grew

· Indian Ocean version of El Nio behind drought in East Africa. Like El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole involves cyclical temperature changes in the ocean, and now millions face crop failures and famine partly as a result

· Metabolism may be older than life itself and start spontaneously. The discovery that the Krebs cycle, which is essential for life, can occur in the absence of enzymes suggests that life’s origins were surprisingly humble

· Scott Pruitt?s climate denial may be Putin?s real prize. Did Russia back the rise of Donald Trump to see climate sceptics in power in the hope of saving its economic skin, wonders Owen Gaffney

· Forget snow, rain will become main precipitation in the Arctic. By the end of the century, the Arctic will get far more rain. The vicious cycle of warming and precipitation could have serious consequences for wildlife

· Trump?s assault on climate science will not make America great. Gutting the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency will leave the US more vulnerable to climate change

· Green thinking in the era of Trump. In a new political reality, the rights of the individual will overshadow how the US manages its environmental resources. Two new books explain the background

· EPA boss says carbon dioxide not primary cause of climate change. The statement from Scott Pruitt, the new head of the Environmental Protection Agency, contradicts all the scientific evidence

· Plankton can save the ocean. But who will save the plankton?. It's not just warming oceans we need to worry about. Crucial plankton have been discovered behaving strangely, but they may point the way to better geoengineering

· Most people don?t know climate change is entirely human-made. Even in eco-friendly Norway, only a minority of people realise that global warming is entirely due to our actions, survey of four European countries reveals

· Sponge can soak up and release spilled oil hundreds of times. A new foam material could be the first good reusable method to recover spilled oil, and would be much better for the environment

· Raindrops make soil bacteria take off and fly through air. When raindrops hit the ground, they throw microbes into the air in aerosols– with possible implications for the climate, agriculture and diseases

· Deep cuts to environmental research in Trump?s budget proposal. US agencies doing climate research see concerning budget proposal that would eliminate funding for government science on air, energy and water within EPA, and slash satellite and coastal research at NOAA

· Global greening may soak up less carbon dioxide than projected. Earth could warm slightly faster than we thought because a lack of phosphorus will prevent many plants exploiting all the extra CO2

· UK?s CO2 emissions lowest since 19th century as coal use falls. Emissions of the major greenhouse gas fell almost 6 per cent year-on-year in 2016 to the lowest levels seen since 1894

· First yearly CO2 forecast predicts one of biggest rises ever. The forecast suggests levels of the greenhouse gas could briefly pass 410 parts per million in May, just four years after first passing 400 ppm

· Rock solid evidence of Anthropocene seen in 208 minerals we made. Human activities like mining and building have created hundreds of minerals and spread them all over the world, leaving a significant mark on the geological record

· Traces in rock may be the oldest evidence of life on Earth ever. Rocks that could be just 200 million years younger than Earth carry structures and signatures reminiscent of microbial activity, but some dispute that view

· Atmospheric rivers leave California dried out and then flooded. Weeks of storms have filled California’s reservoirs. A series of atmospheric river storms is to blame, and the state’s ageing dams are feeling the strain

· Snow will melt more slowly in a warmer world? here?s why. Snowmelt will start earlier but happen more slowly, depriving river systems and reservoirs of the big gush of water they rely on

· A loaf of bread emits half a kilo of CO2, mainly from fertiliser. Fertiliser use accounts for 40 per cent of greenhouse gases emitted to make bread, and bread production accounts for half a per cent of all UK emissions

· There?s no such thing as?clean coal?? it?s dirty and expensive. Australia and the US want to revive an uneconomical and polluting technology, and, worse, Australia plans to take money from a clean energy fund to do it

· The EU?s renewable energy policy is making global warming worse. Independent report concludes the massive subsidies for wood energy are increasing greenhouse emissions, and are a waste of public money

· Worst-ever coral bleaching event continues into fourth year. NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch is predicting that many reefs will bleach in the next three months as sea temperatures remain high despite the recent El Niño coming to an end

· Alarm as climate sceptic named head of US environment agency. Scientists within the EPA say work continues as usual for now, but they worry about potential changes when Scott Pruitt– a climate change sceptic – takes charge

· The father of the Gaia hypothesis shares his greatest invention. James Lovelock is best known for his Gaia hypothesis, but it is a device he invented 60 years ago that accidentally helped to save the planet that we should laud him for

· How the world made us: chance and climate in the human story. Chance, geo-climatic factors and the changing landscape all have an important part to play in human evolution, argues Mark Maslin in The Cradle of Humanity

· Antarctic sea ice is very low? but don?t jump to conclusions. Drawing premature conclusions about global warming’s role in Antarctic sea ice loss is unjustified whether positive or negative. The evidence must speak for itself

· Emergency clause lets European countries beat bee pesticide ban. About half of the European Union’s member states are making use of an emergency clause to allow the use of banned pesticides that are thought to harm bees

· Crews race to fix California dam before more rain falls. Heavy rains caused erosion and a partial collapse of spillways at a California dam - and more rain is forecast, threatening to overflow it again and flood towns

· More people now believe human-made climate change is happening. The proportion of people in the UK who accept climate change is happening and is largely human-made has risen from 57 per cent three years ago to 64 per cent now

· Simple equation shows how human activity is trashing the planet. The impact of industrialised societies on Earth has been described in a mathematical formula that should scare us all, says Owen Gaffney

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